The Republic of Djibouti has an estimated population of 879,100(UN, 2010). The capital is Djibouti. Djibouti has an area of 23,200 sq km (8,950 sq miles). The main languages are French, Arabic, Somali, and Afar.
Djibouti gained its independence from France in 1977. In the 1990s the country was plagued by a civil war between the Afar minority and the Issa-dominated government. Both parties signed a peace agreement in 2001 that ended the civil war. The strategic location of Djibouti to the Red Sea makes it an important country, which hosts the only US military base in Sub-Saharan Africa. France also maintains a significant military presence in the country.
Custom, Law, and religion in Djibouti discriminate against women. Despite constitutional provision that establish the principle of equality between men and women, inequalities still exist between men and women. Women representation in public life, business and politics is very low. Violence against women is widespread in Djibouti. Domestic violence and marital rape are not expressly criminalized. Such violence is rarely exposed and is often dealt within the family or traditional contexts. Female genital mutilation persists in Djibouti despite the Government efforts to end the practice. It was estimated that 93% of women have undergone a form of FMG in 2008.