Egyptian women fought for the overthrow of Mubarak alongside men. But now the male-domination of transitional politics is like going backwards, writes Nadya Khalife of Human Rights Watch.
The images of Egyptian men and women standing side-by-side in Cairo's Tahrir Square inspired and captured the attention of the world and shattered stereotypes about the restriction of women from political life.
But the exclusion of women from the political transition process questions that optimism.
No women are on the constitutional drafting committee and none of the newly appointed cabinet ministers is female.
The announcement during the protests of a civil society initiative to form a Committee of Wise Men confirmed the likelihood that women could be pushed to the sidelines again. A committee whose very name excludes women should have no place in this process. Some women's groups are calling on the military council to help establish a special committee to facilitate the full and meaningful participation of women.
The United Nations, recognizing the role that women play at these critical junctures, has set out conditions that should be met to ensure that women are able to participate fully and meaningfully in political life.
These include making sure that women can freely express their views about politics, join and participate in political parties and activities and have access to information about political processes. It calls for special attention to empowering young women to participate in politics and civil society.
In It Together
During the 18 days of protests that led to former-President Hosni Mubarak's downfall, women along with men carried banners and placards demanding an end to the dictatorship and chanted slogans at the top of their voices. Women, like men, were tear gassed, dodged live bullets and took shelter behind walls.
Many Egyptian women commented on the lack of sexual harassment, a daily feature of life for many women, during the early days of the protests. It wasn't until thousands more people joined the protesters in Tahrir that problems emerged.
Those same problems were once again on glaring display on March 8, International Women's Day, when a small band of women calling for equal rights were driven violently out of Tahrir Square by menacing men.
When Egypt's elections come about--that will likely take months--it will be important to encourage political parties to field female candidates and to ensure that women who want to run for office can do so without intimidation.
In addition to ensuring women's participation, there will need to be a strong commitment during the transition period to protecting and promoting women's human rights by abolishing discriminatory laws and practices.
That means repealing family law provisions that discriminate against women and instead giving them equal rights in marriage, divorce, guardianship, custody and inheritance. New laws to make domestic violence and sexual harassment crimes should be adopted and enforced as well.
More also needs to be done to eradicate traditional practices that harm women's and girls' health, such as the country's high rates of female genital mutilation, which impacts between 80 and 90 percent of women. Past efforts by the Egyptian government to curb this practice have not been sufficient.